Results 1 to 1 of 1

Thread: Micromegakaryocytes, megathrombocyte, myeloid leukemia blood picture - blood histology atlas

  1. #1

    Default Micromegakaryocytes, megathrombocyte, myeloid leukemia blood picture - blood histology atlas

    Medical history and physical exam
    If signs or symptoms suggest you might have leukemia, the doctor will want to get a thorough medical history, including how long you have had symptoms and whether or not you have any risk factors.

    During the physical exam, the doctor will likely pay close attention to your eyes, mouth, skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and nervous system, and will look for areas of bleeding or bruising, or possible signs of infection.

    If there is reason to think there might be problems caused by abnormal blood cells (anemia, infections, bleeding or bruising, etc.), you will get tests to check your blood cell counts. You might also be referred to a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in diseases of the blood (including leukemia).

    Spinal fluid
    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. AML can sometimes spread to the area around the brain and spinal cord. To check for this spread, doctors remove a sample of CSF for testing. The procedure used to remove this fluid is called a lumbar puncture (spinal tap). A lumbar puncture is not often used to test for AML, unless the patient is having symptoms that could be caused by leukemia cells spreading into the brain and spinal cord.

    For this test, the patient may lie on his side or sit up. The doctor first numbs an area of skin on the lower part of the back over the spine. A small, hollow needle is then inserted between the bones of the spine into the area around the spinal cord to withdraw some of the fluid. A lumbar puncture is sometimes used to deliver chemotherapy drugs into the CSF to help prevent or treat the spread of leukemia to the spinal cord and brain.

    Blood chemistry and coagulation tests
    These tests measure the amounts of certain chemicals in the blood and the ability of the blood to clot. These tests are not used to diagnose leukemia, but they can help detect liver or kidney problems, abnormal levels of certain minerals in the blood, or problems with blood clotting.

    Routine microscopic exams
    Samples of blood, bone marrow, or CSF are looked at under a microscope by a pathologist (a doctor specializing in lab tests) and may be reviewed by the patient’s hematologist/oncologist (a doctor specializing in cancer and blood diseases).

    The doctors will look at the size, shape, and other traits of the white blood cells in the samples to classify them into specific types.

    A key element is whether the cells look mature (like normal blood cells) or immature (lacking features of normal blood cells). The most immature cells are called myeloblasts (or blasts for short).

    The percentage of blasts in the bone marrow or blood is particularly important. Having at least 20% blasts in the marrow or blood is generally required for a diagnosis of AML. It can also be diagnosed if the blasts are found (using another test) to have a chromosome change that occurs only in a specific type of AML, even if the blast percentage doesn’t reach 20%. Sometimes the blasts look like normal immature cells in the bone marrow. But in normal bone marrow, the blast count is 5% or less.
    Micromegakaryocytes, megathrombocyte, myeloid leukemia blood attachment.php?s=4330c82a0bbee1719d184525e452dfa7&attachmentid=1429&d=1439592466

    Sometimes just counting and looking at the cells isn’t enough to provide a clear diagnosis. Additional tests may be used to confirm the diagnosis of AML.

    Cytochemistry
    For cytochemistry tests, cells are exposed to chemical stains (dyes) that react with only some types of leukemia cells. These stains cause color changes that can be seen under a microscope, which can help the doctor determine what types of cells are present. For instance, one stain can help distinguish AML cells from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cells. The stain causes the granules of most AML cells to appear as black spots under the microscope, but it does not cause ALL cells to change colors.

    Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry
    Flow cytometry is often used to look at the cells from bone marrow and blood samples. It is very helpful in determining the exact type of leukemia.

    The test looks for certain substances on the surface of cells that help identify what types of cells they are. A sample of cells is treated with special antibodies (man-made immune system proteins) that stick to the cells only if they have these substances. The cells are then passed in front of a laser beam. If the cells now have antibodies attached to them, the laser will make them give off light, which can be measured and analyzed by a computer. Groups of cells can be separated and counted by these methods.

    In immunohistochemistry tests, cells from the blood or bone marrow samples are also treated with special antibodies. But instead of using a laser and computer, the sample is treated so that certain types of cells change color when seen under a microscope.

    These tests are used for immunophenotyping – classifying leukemia cells according to the substances (antigens) on their surfaces. Leukemia cells can have different antigens depending on which type of cells they start in and how mature they are, and this information can be helpful in AML classification.

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)
    This is similar to cytogenetic testing. It uses special fluorescent dyes that only attach to specific genes or parts of particular chromosomes. FISH can find the chromosome changes (such as translocations) that are visible under a microscope in standard cytogenetic tests, as well as some changes too small to be seen with usual cytogenetic testing.

    FISH can be used to look for changes in specific genes or parts of chromosomes. It can be used on regular blood or bone marrow samples without growing them in a lab first. This means the results are often available more quickly than with regular cytogenetic testing. The drawback is that it only looks for certain gene or chromosome changes, so the doctor has to know what he or she is looking for before the test is run.

    References:
    http://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemi...nous-diagnosed











    Last edited by Medical Photos; 08-14-2015 at 10:47 PM.

  2. Similar Threads

    1. Micromegakaryocytes, megathrombocytes, myeloid leukemia picture - blood histology atlas
      By Medical Videos in forum Hematology Atlas(Photos of cases)
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 02-16-2009, 05:07 AM
    2. Small platelets, megathrombocyte, M-7 leukemia picture - blood histology atlas
      By Medical Videos in forum Hematology Atlas(Photos of cases)
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 02-16-2009, 04:55 AM
    3. Lymphocyte, platelet fragment, megathrombocyte, M-7 leukemia picture - blood histology atlas
      By Medical Videos in forum Hematology Atlas(Photos of cases)
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 02-16-2009, 04:54 AM
    4. Megathrombocyte, PAS stain, myeloid metaplasia picture - blood histology atlas
      By Medical Videos in forum Hematology Atlas(Photos of cases)
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 02-16-2009, 04:51 AM
    5. Micromegakaryocytes, myeloid metaplasia myelofibrosis blood picture - blood histology atlas
      By Medical Videos in forum Hematology Atlas(Photos of cases)
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 02-16-2009, 04:49 AM

Tags for this Thread

Bookmarks

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
About us
Medical Educational Site for Medical Students and Doctors Contains Free Medical Videos ,Atlases,Books,Drug Index ,Researches ,Health and Medical Technology news.
  • Privacy Policy
  • Join us
    Powered by vBulletin® Version 4.2.0 Copyright © 2015
  • vBulletin®
  • Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. vBulletin Metro Theme by
  • PixelGoose Studio