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Thread: Probable sarcoidosis case pictures - NEURORADIOLOGY ATLAS

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    Default Probable sarcoidosis case pictures - NEURORADIOLOGY ATLAS

    What is sarcoidosis?
    Sarcoidosis is an inflammation in which lymphocytes, a type of blood cell, become overactive. These overactive lymphocytes release chemical substances which cause granulomas (a collection of inflammatory cells) in various organs of the body. Although sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder, it affects the lungs 90% of the time, making it primarily a lung disease.

    What does the name "sarcoidosis" mean?
    The name Sarcoid comes from the Greek word sarko meaning "flesh". The "oid" is also from the Greek and means "like". So, sarcoidosis means flesh-like or fleshy, referring to the small skin tumors that can develop. It is pronounced sar coy do'sls.

    What causes sarcoidosis?
    So far, research has shown that sarcoidosis is not caused by any known bacteria, mold or dust particles. Nor is it due to any gases or fumes. Some researchers believe that sarcoidosis is caused by a virus, but the nature of such an agent remains unclear. Sarcoidosis is likely a result of continued presentation of a poorly degradable antigen. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a strong contender for this antigen, but the organism has not been so far found in sarcoid granulomas. The molecular studies demonstrate mycobacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the sarcoid tissue and antibodies against it in the blood serum. These findings reinforce the possible pathogenic role of mycobacterial antigens in sarcoidosis, but the clinical utility is limited.

    How do I know if I have sarcoidosis?
    About 50% of the patients with sarcoidosis do not have any symptoms and are recognized when a chest x-ray or chest CT is obtained either as a part of routine physical examination or for evaluation for some other clinical illness. Shortness of breath is a common symptom. Some patients have troublesome dry cough and others may have pain in the chest. Tiredness, lethargy, listlessness and joint pains are common. Sarcoidosis may also cause fever and weight loss.

    What organs are affected by sarcoidosis?
    The lungs are the most commonly affected organs by far, but the disease can also involve the eyes, skin, lymph glands, bones and joints, heart, nervous system and other internal organs. For this reason sarcoidosis is classified as a multisystem disorder. Although some organs e.g., pleura. peritoneum and adrenal glands are not frequently affected, no organ is exempt from sarcoidosis.

    What are the symptoms of the lung involvement?
    Shortness of breath, cough, chest pain and tightness are the most common complaints of sarcoidosis of the lungs. Whether you have symptoms or not, your chest x-ray will almost always be abnormal. Severe scarring (fibrosis of the lungs can cause respiratory failure.

    What is the incidence of chest pain in sarcoidosis?
    Non-specific chest pain is not uncommon in sarcoidosis. In a study of 821 sarcoidosis subjects, 19% had chest pain. The nature of chest pain not clear but it correlates with a radiological stage of the disease. The enlarged hilar nodes (Stage I can cause chest pain much like that of coronary disease. The pain is usually behind the breast bone. It can be pleuritic in nature i.e., pain worsens on taking a deep breath.
    Probable sarcoidosis case pictures NEURORADIOLOGY attachment.php?s=4ccd2227ecbf38b499c54efd034d6e47&attachmentid=1729&d=1440965987

    What are the symptoms of eye sarcoidosis?
    Burning, itchy, red, light sensitive eyes are the usual symptoms. If sarcoidosis of the eyes is not recognized and properly treated, blindness may occur.

    What is the effect of sarcoidosis on skin?
    Reddish-blue patches, rash, nodules and small growths are features of skin sarcoidosis. Skin nodules are neither itchy nor painful. They do not weep fluid. In some cases, skin tumors/growths can be become scarred and deformed.

    What is the effect of sarcoidosis on lymph glands?
    Often there are no symptoms to this form of sarcoidosis, but the patient may be able to feel enlarged glands in the neck, armpits, and groin. The enlarged glands usually are not tender and are painless.

    What is the effect of the disease on bones and joints?
    Sarcoid bone lesions are usually painless and discovered on bone scans. Unlike some forms of arthritis, bone and joint sarcoidosis does not generally cause crippling joint disease in the majority of individuals, but on rare occasions it has been seen. (Note: Dr. Afshars has suggested this change to Dr. Sharma`s original answer)

    How common is sarcoidosis of the heart and what are its effects?
    Sarcoidosis of the heart is a serious complication of sarcoidosis. Symptomatic cardiac sarcoidosis occurs in about 5% of sarcoidosis patients. Complete heart block or heart rate below 40 beats per minute, palpitation, irregular heart rhythm, dizziness and syncope are some of the major symptoms, but many sarcoidosis patients with heart involvement are symptom free. When extensive thickening of the heart muscle with granulomas and scarring occur, heart failure and sudden death can result.

    What is the incidence of ventricular aneurysm?
    In a necropsy study aneurysms were found in 9 out of 86 subjects. Ventricular aneurysms without evidence of coronary artery disease have been described in sarcoidosis.

    References:
    Common Questions About the Disease, Dr. Om P. Sharma











    Last edited by Medical Photos; 08-30-2015 at 08:19 PM.

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