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Thread: Basophil and Acdiophil Chromophobes picture - Endocrine Histology Atlas

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    Default Basophil and Acdiophil Chromophobes picture - Endocrine Histology Atlas

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    Learning Objectives

    • Describe the organization and function of endocrine tissues, including the key endocrine organs as well as diffuse endocrine cells.
    • Distinguish the different types of pituitary cells using the light microscope and electron microscope.
    • Name and describe the different layers of the adrenal gland, as well as the blood supply to this gland.
    • Explain what is unique about the structure of the thyroid gland.
    • Contrast the structure of the thyroid with that of the parathyroid.
    • Identify islets of Langerhans within pancreatic tissue and explain the relative positions of alpha and beta cells.
    • Recognize the differences between normal and pathological specimens of thyroid, adrenal gland, parathyroid, and pancreas.


    Keywords

    This is an experimental portion of the website. Each keyword starts a script that searches for the keyword on DBpedia which is the structured data version of Wikipedia. The search returns a description to the keyword and an associated image if available. If the search does not return a results, a link to a Google search is presented.

    Introduction

    The term "endocrine" implies secretion into the internal milieu of a multicellular organism. In contrast to exocrine tissues, where the secretory products are discharged into the external space - the outer surface of the body, mucosal surfaces, duct systems - the endocrine organs and cells secrete their products into the vascular system. The blood vessels then serve as conduits for these secretions to travel to their target tissues.

    Endocrine tissues function according to a basic model: individual cell types respond, via surface receptors, to different signals. They produce a very limited spectrum of secretory products, called hormones, that themselves function as signaling molecules for specific cell populations. These hormones are effective at exceedingly low concentrations. Because of this, relatively few cells are sufficient for the integrative function of large, multicellular organisms. Therefore, endocrine tissues are characteristically present in small quantities.
    Basophil Acdiophil Chromophobes picture Endocrine attachment.php?s=4316815be1476ebfd8e876c8d5d70d53&attachmentid=1325&d=1439065179

    The focus of this laboratory will be on five endocrine tissues: the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal gland, and the endocrine pancreas.

    Pituitary Gland

    The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is a collection of different cell types that control the activity of other endocrine organs. It is governed by the hypothalamus, which sends both electrical and hormonal signals to the pituitary, and by feedback regulation (both positive and negative) through the secretions of its target glands. The pituitary gland sits within the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and is traditionally divided into two sections that can be distinguished structurally, functionally, and embryologically.

    The anterior pituitary is also known as the adenohypophysis or pars distalis and is derived from Rathke's pouch, a growth of the primitive oral cavity. It contains cells that, when viewed under the light microscope, appear as acidophils, basophils, or chromophobes.

    • Acidophils are typically eosin-stained and tend to be located in the center of each half of the pituitary. They secrete protein hormones like growth hormone and prolactin.
    • Basophils appear purple and are more prominent at the edges of the gland. They secrete glycoprotein hormones such as ACTH, TSH, FSH, and LH.
    • Chromophobes have clear nuclei and scant cytoplasm. They may be cells that are non-secretory or exhibit minimal hormone storage.
    • The posterior pituitary is also known as the neurohypophysis or pars nervosa and is derived from the hypothalamus. It is mostly composed of unmyelinated axonal processes and terminals of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. The pituitary stalk connects the two glands. The posterior pituitary has characteristic Herring bodies, focal axonal swellings that are packed with secretory granules. Pituicytes are the glial cells of the pituitary gland; the nuclei that are visible in sections of posterior pituitary belong to these cells, as well as cells of the vasculature.



    A third section of the pituitary, the intermediate lobe, is vestigial in man.

    The pituitary gland has a unique vascular system. Cells from the hypothalamus secrete releasing hormone into a hypophysisal portal system that flows from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary. This system supplies the anterior pituitary and drains its products, which include the stimulating hormones produced there. It then enters the systematic circulation, which delivers those hormones to target organs throughout the body. The posterior pituitary has a separate system that carries away its products, as it does not receive hormonal stimulation from the hypothalamus.

    References:
    http://medcell.med.yale.edu/histolog...ystems_lab.php











    Last edited by Medical Photos; 08-08-2015 at 08:19 PM.

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