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Thread: Anterior Lobe Acidophils 2 picture - Endocrine Histology Atlas

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    Default Anterior Lobe Acidophils 2 picture - Endocrine Histology Atlas

    Anterior Pituitary

    You should also be able to see two types of chromophils (cells which take up stain) called acidophils and basophils.
    Acidophils and basophils are divided into different classes of cells which have different secretory products and target organs. The subtypes of acidophils and basophils, are described in the table below. These cannot be distinguished by H&E or other histological stains, but can be stained specifically by immunohistochemical techniques.
    The anterior pituitary secretes five different types of hormone. See the table below.
    The capillaries in this gland are fenestrated, to enable passage of hormones from the secretory cells into the bloodstream.
    Glandular Disorders and diseases
    The anterior pituitary also contains one type of chromophobe (cells which stain only weakly) These are resting/degranulated chromophils.

    Posterior Pituitary.

    The posterior pituitary looks very different to the anterior pituitary (see adjacent image). It contains non-myelinated axons which are the neurosecretory cells. The cell bodies of these cells are located in the hypothalamus.
    It only secretes two hormones:
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which acts on the kidney, and oxytocin, which acts on the uterus.

    Pituitary Gland
    the pituitary (also known as the hypophysis) is found at the base of the brain, about 1cm in diameter, lying beneath the third ventricle in a bony cavity (sella turcica) in the base of the skull. It has a complex structure. This diagram of the pituitary shows its main features.

    Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).
    Anterior Lobe Acidophils picture Endocrine attachment.php?s=1cca527df164c4282c9188eba93ebb89&attachmentid=1328&d=1439066115

    1.
    What type of hormone is estradiol?
    a. Protein
    b. Amino acid chain
    c. Steroid
    d. Catecholamine
    e. None of the above

    Answer: c

    Hormones can have a variety of structures. Hormones which are proteins include insulin and prolactin. Peptide chains are short chains of amino acids. Examples of hormones which are peptide chains are antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. Steroid hormones are cholesterol derivatives. Steroid hormones include testosterone and estradiol. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are catecholamines.

    2.
    What is another term for the anterior lobe of the pituitary?
    a. Pars intermedia
    b. Pars tuberalis
    c. Pars distalis
    d. Pars nervosa
    e. Infundibular stalk

    Answer: c

    The pituitary can be subdivided into the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis can be further sub-divided into the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. The pars distalis is the anterior lobe of the pituitary. The neurohypophysis can be further sub-divided into the pars nervosa, infundibular stalk, and median eminence. The pars nervosa is the posterior lobe.

    3.
    What cell type secretes growth hormone?
    a. Lactotropic cells
    b. Thyrotropic cells
    c. Somatotropic cells
    d. Corticotropic cells
    e. Gonadotropic cells

    Answer: c

    There are several cell types in the pars distalis (anterior pituitary). Lactotropic cells secrete prolactin. Thyrotropic cells secrete thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Somatotropic cells secrete growth hormone. Corticotropic cells secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Gonadotropic cells secrete follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

    4.
    Which of the following cells can be classified as a basophil?
    a. Somatotropic cells
    b. Lactotropic cells
    c. Gonadotropic cells
    d. None of the above
    e. All of the above

    References:
    http://www.histology-world.com/testbank/endocrine6a.htm











    Last edited by Medical Photos; 08-08-2015 at 08:35 PM.

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