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Thread: Acidophils picture - Endocrine Histology Atlas

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    Default Acidophils picture - Endocrine Histology Atlas

    ENDOCRINE GLANDS

    Endocrine (or internally secreting) glands are also named ductless glands, since they lack excretory ducts. Instead, the secretory cells release their products, hormones, into the extracellular space. From the extracellular space, the hormones may enter the blood stream, by which they reach their target organs. Alternatively, the hormones may affect nearby cells (paracrine acting hormones).

    The major endocrine glands are the pituitary gland, the pineal body, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid gland, the pancreas, the adrenal glands, the ovaries and the testes. In some of these glands/organs the endocrine tissue constitutes only part of the parenchyma of the organ (Which ones?). Small groups or individual endocrine cells are also found in a variety of other organs, e.g. the GIT and the kidneys.
    Acidophils picture Endocrine Histology Atlas attachment.php?s=0713da6ffbc05b3730d322a7837f9aff&attachmentid=1329&d=1439066461

    Pituitary Gland

    The pituitary gland (or hypophysis) is attached to the inferior surface of the brain by an extension of the nervous tissue of the tuber cinereum /eminentia mediana of the hypothalamus, the infundibulum. The infundibulum and small amounts of non-neural secretory tissue surrounding it form the hypophyseal stalk. The pituitary gland is located in the sella turica, the hypophyseal fossa of the sphenoid bone. The pituitary gland is surrounded by a thin connective tissue capsule. The loose connective tissue between the capsule and the periosteum of the sphenoid bone contains a dense plexus of thin-walled veins, which surround the entire pituitary gland.

    Macroscopically, the pituitary gland can be divided into neurohypophysis, which includes all neuroectodemal hypophyseal derivatives, and adenohypophysis, which includes all ectodermal hypophyseal derivatives. Adenohypophyseal tissue extending dorsally along the anterior and lateral surfaces of the hypophyseal stalk is also called pars tuberalis of the hypophysis. The remainder of the adenohypophysis can be divided into a pars intermedia and a pars distalis.

    Adenohypophysis

    The pars distalis of the adenohypophysis accounts for about 75% of the hypophyseal tissue. The glandular cells are arranged in irregular clumps or cords between a network of capillaries with large and irregular lumina. Connective tissue, which supports the glandular cells, is scant. Traditionally, glandular cells are subdivided into chromophobe cells and acidophil and basophil (chromophil) cells. This division into three cell types is based on their differential staining with H&E. Cocktails of other dyes, some of which are mentioned below, also allow a differentiation between these cell types.

    All known hormones of the adenohypophysis are proteins or glycoproteins.

    The contents of the secretory vesicles are responsible for the staining characteristics of the chromophil cells.


    Chromophobe cells

    Chromophobe cells are unstained or weakly stained cells. Most chromophobe cells can be assigned to the different classes of chromophils if EM and immunocytochemistry are used. They are now thought to represent acidophil and basophilic cells in a dormant or recently degranulated stage (degranulation = release of most of the secretory vesicles), but may also include stem cells of the secretory cells.

    References:
    Blue Histology - Endocrines
    Acidophil | Define Acidophil at Dictionary.com











    Last edited by Medical Photos; 08-08-2015 at 08:41 PM.

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