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Thread: Ophthalmology short notes

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    Default Ophthalmology short notes

    Newer alternative options for anisometropic myopic child

    Lasik tried for years and seemed effective
    RLE( refractive lens exchange)
    INTACS( intra corneal ring segments)
    ICL ( Phakic IOL)

    More long term studies needed for further re-assess and re-evaluate benefits versus drawbacks and complications

    Ophthalmology short notes attachment.php?attachmentid=3317&d=1508835239

    Types of diabetic maculopathy

    • focal macular edema
    • diffuse macular edema
    • ischemic maculopathy
    • mixed maculopathy
    • clinically significant macular oedema











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    Last edited by Reda Gomah El Garia; 10-24-2017 at 08:59 AM.

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    Default Retinal vein occlusion

    Risk factors for retinal vein occlusion

    • arterial hypertension
    • hyperlipidemia
    • smoking
    • hemodynamic circulatory insufficiency
    • coagulation disorders (antithrombin deficiency, factor XII deficiency).

    Causes of central retinal vein occlusion in young

    • estrogen-containing oral contraceptives( female)
    • nicotine abuse
    • coagulation disorders such as a decrease in the level of antithrombin or a factor XII deficiency.
    • Abnormal protein S and C

    Sequence of incidence of neovascularization in retinal vein occlusion

    CRVO ( NVI then NVD then NVE)
    BRVO ( NVE then NVD then NVI)

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    Default Corneal dystrophies

    Mode of inheritance of corneal dystrophies

    Most of them are AD except

    Macular
    Lattice 3
    CHED
    Gelatinous drop like
    Bietti’s crystalline

    Are AR

    Frequently recurrent corneal dystrophies after DALK or PKP in the following sequence

    Gelatinous drop like
    Lattice
    Granular
    Macular

    Don’t miss Avellino dystrophy
    Named after town Avellino in Italy discovered in members of family born there

    Mix between granular and lattice

    Age of presentation of corneal dystrophies

    • Epithelial dystrophies in 1st decade
    • Stromal dystrophies ( except CHSD at birth ) 2nd decade
    • Endothelial in (fuch’s )4th or 5th decade with ( CHED and PPMD at birth )

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    Default Why scissoring reflex in KC!!!??

    Why scissoring reflex in KC!!!??



    The central part of cornea is hyperopic with (with-movement) on retinoscopy
    Peripheral corneal is myopic with (against- movement) on retinoscopy

    Two movements in opposite directions that is why scissoring reflex in retinoscopy

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    Default Fuch’s endothelial dystrophy diagnosis

    Simply how Fuch’s endothelial dystrophy diagnosis made ...



    • Slit lamp finding( central guttae, stromal oedema,epithelial bullae, abnormal endothelium on specular reflection)
    • Increased CCT on pachymetry
    • Abnormal endothelium ( abnormal number , size and shape )on specular microscopy
    • unexpected corneal oedema after smooth Phaco

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    Default Intraocular mycoses

    Patients at high risk for intraocular mycoses:


    ø drug addicts
    ø patients infected with HIV
    ø immunosuppression
    ø patients with massive blood loss
    ø patients in poor general health ( advanced metabolic syndrome)
    ø patients with massive infections.

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    Default Risk factors which have an adverse effect on DR

    Risk factors which have an adverse effect on DR



    • Duration of diabetes
    • Poor metabolic control of diabetes
    • Pregnancy
    • Hypertension
    • Nephropathy
    • Anemia
    • Hyperlipidemia

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    Default Poor prognosis in CSME after laser photocoagulation

    indicators for poor prognosis in CSME after laser photocoagulation



    • Extensive macular capillary non-perfusion (ischemic maculopathy)
    • Diffuse disease
    • Cystoid macular edema (longstanding )
    • Lamellar macular hole
    • Foveal hard exudates plaque

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    Default Retinal new vessels

    Regarding retinal NV



    • NVD more likely to bleed than NVE because of the absence of internal limiting membrane over the disk.
    • Flat NV more responsive to laser than elevated NV because absorption of laser energy by elevated lesions is less.

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    Default Cryotherapy can have chance in peripheral retinal NV i

    cryotherapy can have chance in peripheral retinal NV in the following situations



    • Progressive peripheral proliferative diseases (NVD,NVEorNVI) despite previous full PRP
    • media opacities (cataract, VH) making PRP hard to do

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