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Thread: Vagina ( Embryology - Anatomy - Histology )

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    Default Vagina ( Embryology - Anatomy - Histology )

    Embryological development:
    - Upper ¾ : from Mullerian duct.
    - Lower ¼ : from urogenital sinus.
    Site : Connects the uterus above with the vestibule below.
    Size : * Anterior wall= 7.5 cm. * Posterior wall = 10 cm.
    Direction: Runs upward backward making angle 60 ͦ with the horizontal plane.
    Anteriorly :
    · Upper ⅓: trigone of U.B. (Back of urinary bladder).
    · Lower ⅓: urethra (runs from above downwards).
    Posteriorly :
    · Upper ⅓: peritoneum of Douglas pouch containing loops of intestine.
    · Middle ⅓: ampulla of rectum comes closer to vagina.
    · Lower ⅓: perineal body separating vagina anteriorly from anal canal posteriorly.
    Laterally :
    · Upper part : uterine vessels run above ureter.
    · Middle part: levator ani & pelvic fascia above it.
    · Lower part :
    * 1cm above orifice: urogenital diaphragm.
    * Lower end : bulbocavernosus muscle, vestibular bulb & Bartholin gland.
    Superiorly :
    · Vaginal portion of cervix is surrounded by 4 vaginal fornices:
    - Anterior fornix: shallow & lies between cervix & anterior vaginal wall.
    - Posterior fornix: deep & lies between cervix & posterior vaginal wall.
    - 2 lateral fornices: lies between cervix & lateral vaginal wall.
    · Closed by hymen in virgins.
    * Crossing of uterine artery to the ureter lies 1.5 cm above vaginal vault & 1.5 cm
    lateral to the cervix.
    * Above this crossing: paracervical L.N. & paracervical nerve ganglion are present.
    Vaginal support:
    1. Ligaments supporting cervix & attached to upper vagina.
    · Anterior Pubocervical ligament.
    · Lateral Mackenrodt's ligament.
    · Posterior Uterosacral ligament.
    2. Pubovaginalis part of levator ani muscle.
    3. Pelvic diaphragm (triangular ligament).
    4. Perineal membrane.
    5. Vaginal fascia.

    Vagina Embryology Anatomy Histology attachment.php?attachmentid=3179&d=1497720831

    Histology (fibromuscular tissue):
    * Cut section: H-shaped with approximation of anterior to the posterior vaginal wall.
    * Layers:
    - Mucosa: - Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
    - No glands, but kept moist by vaginal transudation & cervical mucus secretions.
    - PH around 4.5 (WHY?!!!)
    - Thrown into rugae (folds), this allows distension of vagina during labour.
    N.B: Vaginal adenosis
    Def.: presence of glands into vagina.
    A/E: exposure to DES (DiEthyl Stilbisterol) in utero.
    Comp.: precancerous (clear cell carcinoma)
    - Submucosa: connective tissue rich in:
    - Blood vessels, nerves & lymphatics. &
    - Elastic fibers to allow great distension.
    - Musculosa: * Smooth muscle fibers arranged in criss-cross manner.
    * Some fibers from levator ani are inserted into it.
    - Adventitia: dense C.T. sheath forms: *Anteriorly Pubocervical fascia.
    *Posteriorly Rectovaginal fascia.

    Blood supply:
    A. Arterial:
    Vaginal artery (branch of from internal iliac artery).
    Lower part is supplied by numerous branches of internal iliac artery;
    · Uterine artery : ……………………..……a branch of internal iliac artery.
    · Middle rectal artery : ………………………… a branch of internal iliac artery.
    · Inferior rectal artery:… from internal pudendal artery of internal iliac artery.
    B. Venous:
    Accompany corresponding arteries: drain into vaginal plexus then into internal iliac v.
    Vaginal plexus connects with plexuses around bladder & rectum.

    Nerve supply:
    Upper 2/3: like the uterus.
    Lower 1/3: like the vulva (pudendal nerve, sensory).

    Lymphatic drainage:

    Upper 1/3: like the cervix.
    Middle 1/3: to both directions.
    Lower 1/3 : inguinal L.Ns.

    Dr. Evans: vagina anatomy video

    Introduction to Female Reproductive Anatomy - 3D Anatomy Tutorial

    Reproductive System, part 1 - Female Reproductive System: Crash Course

    Attached Images  
    Last edited by Dr.Galal Baligh; 06-17-2017 at 05:51 PM.

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