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1. THE ACUTE COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES.
These are beyond what you are expected to know for this module but because there is
sometimes confusion about how to deal with a diabetic patient who becomes unwell in
the clinic setting we have included a short description of the two most important acute
emergencies, diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycaemia. The acute diabetic emergencies
can be found in supplement 2.
2. THE CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES.
These are the complications that occur because of the chronic exposure of the body’s
tissues to hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia or their associated metabolic
disturbances. The potential chronic complications of diabetes are those that most
people with diabetes fear; however over 40% of patients with type 1 diabetes survive
for over 40 years after the disease has been diagnosed, half of them without
developing significant complications.

The chronic complications of diabetes are classified as follows:
1. MICROVASCULAR (microangiopathic)
SDiabetic Retinopathy.
SDiabetic Neuropathy.
SDiabetic Nephropathy.
SDiabetic skin problems (the “Diabetic foot”)
2. MACROVASCULAR.
SAccelerated propensity to atherosclerosis/atheroma
Peripheral vascular disease/ coronary heart disease.
Myocardial infarction.
S Arteriosclerosis.
Hypertension and cerebrovascular disease.
3. OTHER ASSOCIATED METABOLIC ABNORMALITIES.
SHypercholesterolaemia.
4. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION.
For reasons not totally understood people with diabetes have an increased
susceptibility to bacterial infection. This is an important factor in the
development of diabetic foot ulceration and explains why people with diabetes
have a much higher risk of limb amputation compared to the normal population.

VIDEOS:


Complications of diabetes video




Diabetes Complications Video




Diabetes Long Term Complications Video