1) Congenital
q Atresia or stenosis or web.
qCongenital short oesophagus ® Reflux oesophagitis.
qDysphagia Lusoria.
2) Acquired
Causes in the wall:
qStricture: corrosive , reflux oesophagitis
qOesophageal Motility disorders.
qNeoplasm * Benign (leomyoma is the commonest benign tumour)
* Malignant ® CA. oesophagus
Causes in the lumen:
* Foreign body * Bolus of food.
Pressure from outside:
In neck: * CA. Thyroid. * Pharyngeal pouch.
In chest: * Mediastinal tumour. * Aortic Aneurysm.
* Rolling hiatal hernia.

SOURCE: DR. AYMAN SALEM'S BOOK
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