(1) Coitus interruptus:
Ejaculation outside vagina by withdrawal of male organ.
(2) Coitus interfemora:
Male organ is kept between the thighs.
− Neurosis and anxiety.
− Excitement without satisfaction especially for female partner.
− Congested pelvis manifestations (menorrhagia, leucorrhoea) & prostatic hypertrophy in the male).
− 18 /HWY failure rate, as pre-ejaculatory fluid contain spermatozoa.
(3) Safe period:
* Avoid coitus during fertile days of woman.
* Advantages: – Controlled by couple themselves.
– Available, any couple can use it.
– No side effects.
– Failure rate is high 24 per HWY as ovulation may occur at any time;
(the safe period is unsafe).
– Skills and motivation are required for proper use.
– Not provide protection against STDs.
– Regular cycles are the cornerstone for this method.
– Desire is not respected killing the emotional nature of the act.
* The most fertile days calculated by subtracting 18 days from the length of the shortest cycle had been ever happen and subtracting 11 days from the length of longest one.
– Symptothermal; basal body temperature is taken, a spike occurs with ovulation, and intercourse is avoided then.
– Cervical mucus; the usual tacky white-yellow cervical mucus changes viscosity into clear, slippery, stretchy discharge at ovulation. Intercourse is avoided then but allowed when the discharge is tacky.
– Calendar; counts from last period to predict next ovulation, avoiding intercourse during the predicted week.
(4) Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM):
• During breast-feeding, suckling causes hormonal changes at the level of the hypothalamus that interrupt the pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This, in turn, impairs LH surge and ovulation does not occur.
• Women must be exclusively or nearly exclusively breast-feeding.
• Feedings must be every 4 hr during the day and every 6 hr at night.
• Supplemental feedings should not exceed 5% to 10% of the total.
• This method is more successful if the infant is <6 months old.
* Advantages of LAM:
– Available to any breastfeeding women.
– Effective, success ratio up to 98%. – Cheep.
– Used immediately postpartum, once lactation starts.
– Temporary method can be used till woman decides the suitable future method.
– Health benefits and psychological element of breast feeding for mother and infant.
* Disadvantages of LAM:
– Difficult application for some women due to social duties.
– Restricted method, not any woman can use, only breast feeders.
– Provide no protection against STDs.
– Limited duration, during lactation only (Short period).
Physiological methods of contraception, introduction to contraception, lactational amenorrhea, natural contraception
GCSE Biology -Contraception video
Contraceptives are methods people use to prevent pregnancy. In this video we explore the many hormonal and non-hormonal types and how they work. We also briefly cover how pregnancy starts.