Defensive mechanisms against infections:
♦♦♦ Vaginal cavity is guarded by approximation of both labia also approximation of both anterior and posterior vaginal walls.
♦♦♦ Vagina mucosa is thick stratified squamous epithelium –None keratinized.
♦♦♦ Vaginal pH is acidic around 4.5 that destroying most pathogenic organisms.
♦♦♦ Cervix is mechanically closed by a mucus plug which is also bacteriolytic.
♦♦♦ Endometrium has monthly shedding that prevents persistence of infection.
♦♦♦ Cilia moves downward that expel infections away from uterus and tubes.
Weak points in defense mechanisms:
♦♦♦ Before puberty and after menopause due to:
– Vaginal PH deviated from acidity (PH near 6).
– Thin vaginal mucosa in this age.
– Absence of monthly shedding of the endometrium.
♦♦♦ During menstruation due to:
– Alkaline menses lower vaginal acidity.
– Expulsion of cervical plug.
♦♦♦ After abortion or labour due to:
– Alkaline lochia lower vaginal acidity.
– Dilated cervix.
– Raw area left after placental separation.
Biology of the vagina:
♦ During childhood:
– Mechanical: covered by few layers of stratified squamous epithelium.
– Biochemical: *At birth, vagina is sterile.
*During childhood, – Upper part sterile,
– Lower part contaminated by saprophytes.
*PH is alkaline (Near 6).
♦ During childbearing period: (estrogen effect)
– Mechanical: thickened mucosa with cornification of cells.
– Biochemical: Doderlein bacilli responsible for PH around 4.5
N.B.: certain organisms can survive in vaginal acidity:
– Trichomonas vaginalis, candida albicans, streptococcus fecalis.
– Gonococci (protected by alkaline semen).
– Mechanical: Mucosa turns thin & contaminated by nonspecific pathogenic organisms.
– Biochemical: PH turns alkaline.
Gynecology infections videos
Gynecology infections video
Gynecology infections PPT (power point presentations):
Lower genital tract infection Prepared by: Nibal Shawabkeh Supervised by: Dr. Saada Jaber PPT
LOWER GENITAL TRACT INFECTIONS DR MOTIUR RAHMAN PGT Dept of OBG & GYNAE ESI-PGIMSR & ESIC MEDICAL COLLEGE , JOKA PPT
Lower genital tract infections means infections of VULVA , VAGINA ,& CERVIX. Symptoms caused by lower genital tract infections are among the most common presenting complaints of gynecological patients .
LOWER GENITAL INFECTIONS MAGDY ABDELRAHMAN MOHAMED LECTURER OF OB/GYN 2015 PPT
OBSTETRIC & GYNECOLOGY III GYNECOLOGICAL INFECTIONS Pascale Gehy-Andre PA-C PPT
Genital infections are one of the most common reasons for women of all age groups to present to a medical practitioner. Sexually transmitted infections form one subgroup of infections, however the more common infections are vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea affect the sexually active woman, with HlV. These infections can be asymptomatic and can have serious consequences to a woman’s fertility by causing tubal infection and damage. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are fundamental not only to provide symptom relief, but also to prevent recurrences and long-term squeals.