Female genital tract embryological development Introduction:
* The embryonic plate is formed from
ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
* The mesoderm is divided into:
1) Para-axial mesoderm:
forms vertebrae & muscles of the body wall.
2) Intermediate cell mass:
3) Lateral mesodermal plate:
forms the limbs.
* Development of female genital tract begins at
5th week of intra-uterine life.
* Development occurs from 2 parts:
I.Urogenital ridge(Intermediate cell mass):
a)Genital ridge:( Most medial)
Forms ovaries & infundibulo-pelvic ligament.
b)Wolffian ducts:(More lateral)
Undergo atrophy in females.
c)Mullerian ducts:(Most lateral)
Forms fallopian tubes, uterus & upper 3/4 of the vagina.
forms the lower 1/4 of vagina & vulva.
♣ Wolffian duct remnants in female:
1. Hydatid cyst of Morgagni:
small cysts near the fimbriae of the tube.
2. Kobelt’s tubules:
in outer part of broad ligament.
3. Epoophoroon: between ovary & tubules.
4. Paraphoroon: between ovary & uterus.
5. Gartner’s duct:
◊Runs in the broad ligament parallel to the tube.
(If dilated here, para-ovarian cyst is formed).
◊Then downwards parallel to uterus.
◊Then in the anterolateral wall of vagina.
(If dilated here, Gartner’s cyst is formed).
Female genital tract embryological development videos:
DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
DEVELOPMENT REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: FEMALE
Female Reproductive Tract Embryology Model
Female Reproductive Tract Embryology Model Demonstration by Khyber Medical College Student.
Female genital tract embryological development power point presentations:
Development of the female reproductive system
1. Development of the Female Reproductive system Dr. Sahar Hafeez – MD
2. Learning Objectives At the end of this lecture, the students should be able to; • Discuss the process of differentiation of indifferent gonad into Ovaries and source of origin of the elements of ovarian follicles. • Elaborate upon the account of descent of Ovaries and formation of ‘round ligaments of ovary & uterus’. • Comprehend the process of formation of different regions of the female tract by the paramesonephric/Mullerian ducts. • Elucidate upon the formation of ‘broad ligament’ • Enumerate the common congenital malformations of Uterus • Correlate between the development of Vagina with its common malformations . • Discuss the formation of female external genitalia
3. • Absence of SRY gene • No TDF • Development of ovaries • female duct system
4. Degeneration of the medullary sex cords & development of cortex 1. Mesonephric duct (Wolff) 2. PGC 3. Peritoneal cavity 4. Aorta 5. Mesonephric tubule 6. Degenerated gonadal cords 7. Thickened Coelomic epithelium 8. Intestine 9. Mesentery 10. Paramesonephric duct (Müller) 11. Atrophy of mesonephric nephron
5. Formation of the Secondary Cortical cords • The surface epithelium continues to proliferate. In the 7th wk, it gives rise to a second generation of ‘cortical cords’. • In the 4th month of IUL, these cords split into isolated cell clusters, each surrounding one or more primitive germ cells. • The primordial germ cells develop into ‘oogonia’. • The surrounding surface epithelial cells form the ‘follicular cells’.
6. 1.Mesonephric duct (Wolff) atrophying 2.Primordial follicle in the ovarian cortex containing primary Oocyte 3.Aorta 4.Paramesonephric duct (Müller) 5.Mesonephric tubules atrophying 6.Degenerated Gonadal cords 7.Mesothelium of the ovary
7. • Number of Primary Oocytes at 20 wks of IUL • 7 million • Number of Primary Oocytes at Puberty • 400,000
8. Descent of ovaries & the fate of Gubernaculum The ovaries are also pulled down from the lumbar region to the Pelvic cavity. They settle down slightly below the level of pelvic brim. Cranial end of Gubernaculum attached b/w the lower pole of ovary & side of uterus becomes the ‘round ligament of ovary’. While, the portion crossing the sides of uterus till the caudal end attached on the Labia majora becomes the ‘round ligament of uterus’
9. Development of the Uterus & Fallopian tubes PARAMESONEPHRIC / MULLERIAN DUCTS • Fallopian tubes • Uterus • Fundus • Body • Cervix • Vaginal fornices
10. Parts of the Paramesonephric ducts Initially three parts of the Paramesonephric duct are recognizable; • Cranial vertical part which opens with in the coelomic cavity. • Mid horizontal part which crosses the mesonephric duct. • Caudal vertical part which fuses in the midline with its partner from the opposite side.
11. Formation of the uterus (7th – 8th wks of IUL) 1a. Paramesonephric duct (Müller), 2a. Mesonephric duct (Wolff) 3a. Lower gubernaculum, 4a. Utero-vaginal canal, 5a. Urogenital sinus
12. Formation of the Fallopian tubes & Uterus • With the descent of ovaries into the pelvic inlet, the first two parts of the duct on each side will develop into the Fallopian/Uterine tube. • The caudal fused parts will become the Uterine canal. • The fused paramesonephric ducts will give rise to the fundus, body, and cervix of the uterus as well as the upper part of the vagina. • The surrounding mesenchyme will form the ‘myometrium’ & ‘perimetrium’.
13. 1b. Fallopian tube 2b. Atrophied mesonephric duct 3b. Ovarian ligament 3c. Round ligament of uterus 4b. Uterus 5b. Vagina
14. • As the 2 paramesonephric ducts fuse in the midline, a broad transverse peritoneal fold establishes on each side, the Broad Ligament. • Each ligament extends from the side of the uterus towards Pelvic walls . • The Fallopian tubes are located in the upper border of each ligament & the ovary lies behind it. Formation of Broad Ligament of Uterus
15. Congenital malformations of the Uterus Lack of fusion of Paramesonephric ducts in a localized area or throughout the length results in different types of duplication of uterus. • Uterus didelphys results from failure of fusion of the inferior parts of paramesonephric ducts. The uterus is entirely double and each one enters a separate vagina . • Uterus arcuatus is the least severe form in which there is malfusion in the upper region of the vertical parts of paramesonephric ducts & is represented by a slight indentation in the middle of the fundus of uterus. • Uterus bicornis is one of the more common anomalies in which the malfusion involves only the superior part of the paramesonephric ducts resulting in a double-horned uterus entering a single vagina.
16. Anomalies of Uterus
17. Development of the Vagina (during 7th wk of IUL) • The solid tip of fused paramesonephric ducts reaches the dilated pelvic part of UG sinus. • This solid part of UG sinus is known as ‘sinovaginal bulb’ or vaginal plate • The plate keeps on proliferating (thus increasing the distance b/w the uterus & UG sinus). • Four wing-like expansions of the fused paramesonephric duct will encircle the cranial part of the vaginal plate. They will become the ‘vaginal fornices’.
18. Canalization of the Vagina & formation of Hymen • The central cells of the vaginal plate break down (by the process of apoptosis) and a canal is formed which is continuous cranially with the uterine canal. • But, caudally it is separated from the cavity of the UG sinus by a transverse membrane, the ‘hymen’. • At the time of birth (perinatal period), this hymen usually ruptures in the middle & remains as a thin fold of mucous membrane just within the vaginal orifice.
19. Uterine canal & Vagina (at the time of birth) 2.Vaginal vestibule 3a. Uterine cavity 3b. Uterine cervix (neck) 6a. Vagina: The lower fourth out of endoderm 6b. Vagina: The upper 3/4 out of mesoderm 9. Hymen
20. Anomalies of the Vagina Vaginal Atresia: • Failure of canalization of the vaginal plate will lead to vaginal atresia. Imperforated hymen: • If the middle portion of the hymen fails to get thin down during the last weeks of IUL, there would be failure of rupture of hymen during the time of birth resulting in an imperforate hymen.
21. Formation of Female external genitalia • The genital tubercle (GT) elongates only slightly and forms the clitoris • The urethral folds (UF) do not fuse and develop into Labia minora. • The genital swellings enlarge greatly and form the labia majora. • The urogenital groove is open to the surface & forms the vestibule of vagina.
22. Function and purpose of the female reproductive system