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Medical Videos
04-21-2008, 11:21 AM
I- Primary: In which only the oesophagus is involved.
1. Upper sphincter:
- Cricopharyngeal incoordination ( pharyngeal diverticulum)
- Plummer Venson syndrome.
2. Oesophageal body:
- Diffuse spasm.
- Nutcracker oesophagus.
3. Lower sphincter:
- Achalasia.
- Hypertensive lower oesophageal sphincter.
- Hypotensive lower oesophageal sphincter
II- Secondery: In which oesophagus is involved as a part of systemic disease.
A- Scleroderma B- Myasthenia gravis. C- Diabetes mellitus.
D- Presbyoesophagus.
E- Chagas' disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) Acquired achalasia.
F-Cerebrovascular disease.

SOURCE: DR. AYMAN SALEM'S BOOK
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