Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Aetiology:
A. Causative organism: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) type I, II.
1) RNA core with reverse transcriptase.
2) Once infect T helper cells, RNA is converted to DNA by reverse transcriptase.
3) The virus proliferates within the cells cell rupture release of large amounts of
viruses’ invasion of other T helper lymphocytes.
B. Mode of infection:
1) Sexual route: homosexual, heterosexual.
2) Non-sexual route: *contaminated body fluid & contaminated syringes.
*Materno-fetal: – more with initial infection or advanced stages.
– may be abrasion during delivery & breast feeding.
C. Predisposing factors:
Multiple sexual partners especially homosexual & among addicts.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Diagnosis:
A. Stage of viremia: usually asymptomatic, may resemble infectious mononucleosis.
B. Latent stage: long & variable (5- 10 years).
C. Aids related complex:
– Fever ≥ one month with no apparent cause.
– Diarrhea ≥ one month with no apparent cause.
– Weight loss ≥ 10% with no apparent cause.
– Generalized lymphadenopathy.
– Recurrent infection.
D. Picture of AIDS & related conditions:
– Malignancy e.g. Kaposi sarcoma.
– Opportunistic infections e.g. pneumocystitis carinii pneumonia.
Investigations:
1) ELISA or western blot: detect viral antibodies.
2) ↓ CD4 (helper)/ CD8 (suppressor) ratio.
Treatment:
A. Prophylactic treatment: it is the most important & no vaccine is available.
B. Active treatment: azidothymidine but has severe side effects.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

What are HIV & AIDS? HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a type of virus that infects human immune cells. Over time, immune cells are lost, which weakens the immune system and allows patients to be infected by other viruses and develop several types of tumors.

This video explains the pathophysiology behind viral infection, as well as important signs and symptoms of HIV and clinical markers of AIDS. It also gives an overview of diagnosis and treatment.

What is HIV and AIDS? | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Medical Animation: HIV and AIDS

This video, created by Nucleus Medical Media, shows the function of white blood cells in normal immunity. It also portrays how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Common types of antiretroviral medications used to treat HIV and AIDS are also shown.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


Dr. Nikhil Oza Intern BVDUMC A presentation on- AIDS  Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome


Fatal illness  Caused by a retrovirus HIV  It breaks down the body’s immune system, leaving the patient vulnerable to a host of life threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders or unusual malignancies.

 

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

 

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