Zalastin Nasal Spray Composition:
Each 1 ml contains:
Azelastine hydrochloride 1 mg.
Zalastin Nasal Spray Properties:
Azelastine Hel is a second generation antihistamine characterized by a rapid onset and a long duration of action. It inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators of mast cells.
Zalastin Nasal Spray Indications:
Zalastin Nasal Spray is indicated for the treatment of symptoms of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis such as rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal pruritus in adults and children 5 years and older.
Zalastin Nasal Spray Dosage:
– The recommended dose of ZALASTin Nasal Spray is:
Adults an ctiilClren 12yeals and oloertWo sprays (1ll1YlJg/spl’ay) perrrostril twice daily.
Children 5-11 years old: one spray per nostril twice daily.
– Before initial use, the unit should be primed with 4 sprays or until a fine mist appears. If it is not used for more than 3 days, the unit should be reprimed with 2 sprays or until a fine mist appears.
– Before using the nasal spray, the nasal passages should be cleared. Close one nostril, press and sniff deeply and breath out through your mouth.
Zalastin Nasal Spray Adverse Effects :
Irritation of nasal mucosa, bitter taste, drowsiness, tiredness, dry mouth, skin rash, abdominal pain or anorexia may occur.
Zalastin Nasal Spray Contraindications:
Azelastine hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azelastine hydrochloride.
Zalastin Nasal Spray Precautions:
– Activittes requiring mental alertness: Somnolence has been reported in some patients taking azelastine hydrochloride; caution should therefore be exercised when driving a car or operating potentially dangerous machinery.
– Pregnancy: There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical studies in pregnant women. Azelastine hydrochloride should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
– Nursing mothers: It is not known whether azelastine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk; caution should be exercised when azelastine hydr.ochloride is adrntmstered to a nursing woman.
– Pediatric use: Safety and efficacy of azelastine hydrochloride in pediatric patients below the age of 5 years have not been established.
Zalastin Nasal Spray Drug Interactions:
Concurrent use of azelastine hydrochloride with alcohol or other CNS depressants should be avoided because additional reduction in alertness and additional impairment of eNS performance may occur.
Zalastin Nasal Spray Pack:
A bottle containing ’15 ml (100 metered dose).
Zalastin Nasal Spray PRODUCED BY:
EUROPEAN EGYPTIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES
Antihistamines & antiallergics PPT power point presentation :
1. Antihistamines & Antiallergics Arjun Sapkota B. Optometry Maharajgunj Medical Campus Institute of Medicine
2. Introduction Biosynthesis Metabolism Mechanism of action Receptors Drugs Indications Side effects & Contraindication
3. • First Autacoid to be discovered (Greek: autos=self; akos=cure) • Synthesized in 1907 • Isolated and demonstrated to be a natural constituent of mammalian tissues (1927); hence the name Histos=Tissue • Is a β-imidazolylethylamine derivative present in all mammalian tissues
4. • Functions as an autacoid & one of the mediator involved in the allergic inflammatory responses • Has an important role in the regulation of gastric acid secretion • Histamine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS)
5. Formed by the decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine by the enzyme L-histidine decarboxylase HN N NH2 H COOH HN N H NH2 H S-HISTIDINE HISTAMINE HDC
6. • The chief site of histamine storage in most tissues is the mast cell • In the blood, it is the basophil Non- mast cell histamine • Stomach • Brain
7. By the enzymatic inactivation Enzymes involve in the metabolism are: 1. Histamine N-methyl transferase(HMT) 2. Diamine oxidase Metabolized as N- methylimidazole acetic acid & imidazole acetic acid riboside Both are excreted through urine
8. HN N NH2 HN N O Imidazole acetic acid Histamine OH N N NH2 CH3 N-Methyl histamine N N CH3 OH O N-Methylimidazole acetic acid N NO OH OHOH O OH Imidazole acetic acid riboside HMT SAMSAH DAO DAO
9. Almost all mammalian tissues contain histamine Widely distributed in skin, GIT mucosa, lungs, brain, CSF and bone marrow. Also a component of some venoms, sting secretion, bacteria and plants Concentration is high in tissues that contain large numbers of mast cells, such as skin, bronchial tree mucosa, and intestinal mucosa Found in iris, ciliary body, with highest level in uvea, lowest level in retina & sclera
10. Antigen /Allergan Exposed activates immune system IgE antibodies Binds to mast cells & sensitized Calcium channel opening Degranulation of mast cells
11. Release of preformed mediators Histamine Tryptase Chymase Cytokines Heparin Chemotactic Factor Membrane phospholipid Arachidonic acid Phospholipase A cyclooxygenase lipooxygenase leukotrienesProstacyclin Thromboxane A2Prostaglandins
12. Activates H1 & H2 Receptors on Blood vessels vasodilation- Leakage of fluid swelling of tissues Redness, swelling and itching Activation of H1 histamine receptors stimulate itching, whereas H2 receptors are involved in vasodilation
13. Are belonging to the family of G-Protein coupled receptors Receptors H1 H2 Bronchial smooth muscle Gastric parietal cells Location Heart Heart CNS Blood vessels Mucous membrane Mast cells Eye (blood vessels) Eyes(blood vessels) Bronchial smooth muscle CNS White blood cells H3 H4 Brain Spleen Lung,skin Thymus Intestine T-cells Certain blood vessels Eosinophils
Zalastin Nasal Spray