Fallopian tube (Uterine tube = Oviduct) Embryology – Anatomy – Histology
It arises from the upper part of Mullerian duct.
Lies in the free upper part of broad ligament.
Extends outwards & backwards from the uterine
cornu to open into the peritoneal cavity.
Size:10 cm length.
Shape: hollow cylinder.
Parts (4 parts):
1. Interstitial part (intramural part)
• Inside the wall of the uterus.
• Dimensions: 1 cm length × 1 mm diameter.
• Differs from other parts of tube in that:
i. It has no peritoneal coverings.
ii. It has no outer longitudinal muscle layer.
• Immediate lateral to the uterus.
• Dimensions: 2 cm length × 2 mm diameter.
• It is the narrowest part.
• Expanded part following the isthmus.
• Dimensions: 5 cm length × 5 mm diameter.
• It the widest part.
• Funnel shaped.
• Dimensions: 2 cm length.
• Has finger like processes called fimbriae, the longest one is attached to the ovary
called (fimbria ovarica).
• Opening pierces the upper layer of broad ligament to open into the general
Fallopian tube relations:
• Above: loops of small intestine.
• Below: both leaflets of broad ligament & its contents.
• Medial: uterine cornu communicating with uterine cavity.
• Lateral: lateral pelvic wall.
• Posterior: ovaries.
Fallopian tube structure (Histology):
1) Lumen: lined by simple columnar epithelium partially secretory partially ciliated
that forms mucosal folds (endosalpinx).
2) Wall: outer longitudinal & inner circular muscle.
3) Coat: reflection of broad ligament (absent inferiorly).
A. Arterial: uterine artery (of internal iliac) & ovarian artery (of aorta).
B. Venous: *Right ovarian vein IVC.
*Left ovarian vein left renal vein IVC.
* Sympathetic : T11, T12
* Parasympathetic: S2, 3, 4
♦ To para-aortic L.Ns directly through ovarian lymphatics.
Applied anatomy (Surgical importance):
1) Fallopian tube has double blood supply, so gangrene never occurs.
2) Provide site of fertilization & the fertilized ovum remains 4 days within it.
3) In tubal ectopic:
If in the ampulla: Delayed disturbance (wide part).
If in the isthmus: Early disturbance (narrow part).
4) In ART for infertility treatment, ZIFT and GIFT.
5) Tubal ligation is a method of contraception.
Fallopian tube congenital anomalies:
– Aplasia: *complete absence of tubes.
*associated with absence of the uterus & upper ¾ of vagina.
– Hypoplasia (long thin tortuous tube, more liable to ectopic pregnancy & infertility).
– Shape: accessory ostium & tubal diverticulum predispose to ectopic pregnancy.
Functions of the fallopian tube:
1. Pick up of ovum from the ovary.
2. Site of sperm capacitation by tubal secretions.
3. Site of fertilization.
4. Transport of the zygote towards the uterine cavity by peristaltic & ciliary movements.
Anatomy of the fallopian tube.
Lecture on Anatomy of FALLOPIAN TUBES/UTERINE TUBES