Fallopian tube (Uterine tube = Oviduct) Embryology – Anatomy – Histology

By posted on December 15, 2017 5:35PM
FALLOPIAN TUBE (Uterine tube = Oviduct) Embryology - Anatomy - Histology

Fallopian tube (Uterine tube = Oviduct) Embryology – Anatomy – Histology

Embryological development
It arises from the upper part of Mullerian duct. 

Description
Site: 
Lies in the free upper part of broad ligament. 
Extends outwards & backwards from the uterine 
cornu to open into the peritoneal cavity. 
Size: 10 cm length. 
Shape: hollow cylinder. 
Parts (4 parts):
1. Interstitial part (intramural part)
• Inside the wall of the uterus. 
• Dimensions: 1 cm length × 1 mm diameter. 
• Differs from other parts of tube in that: 
i. It has no peritoneal coverings. 
ii. It has no outer longitudinal muscle layer. 
2. Isthmus 
• Immediate lateral to the uterus. 
• Dimensions: 2 cm length × 2 mm diameter. 
• It is the narrowest part. 
3. Ampulla 
• Expanded part following the isthmus. 
• Dimensions: 5 cm length × 5 mm diameter. 
• It the widest part. 
4. Infundibulum
• Funnel shaped. 
• Dimensions: 2 cm length. 
• Has finger like processes called fimbriae, the longest one is attached to the ovary 
called (fimbria ovarica). 
• Opening pierces the upper layer of broad ligament to open into the general 
peritoneal cavity. 

FALLOPIAN TUBE (Uterine tube = Oviduct) Embryology - Anatomy - Histology
FALLOPIAN TUBE (Uterine tube = Oviduct) Embryology – Anatomy – Histology

Fallopian tube relations: 
• Above: loops of small intestine. 
• Below: both leaflets of broad ligament & its contents. 
• Medial: uterine cornu communicating with uterine cavity. 
• Lateral: lateral pelvic wall. 
• Posterior: ovaries

Fallopian tube structure (Histology): 
1) Lumen: lined by simple columnar epithelium partially secretory partially ciliated 
that forms mucosal folds (endosalpinx). 
2) Wall: outer longitudinal & inner circular muscle. 
3) Coat: reflection of broad ligament (absent inferiorly).

Blood supply 
A. Arterial: uterine artery (of internal iliac) & ovarian artery (of aorta).
B. Venous: *Right ovarian vein IVC. 
*Left ovarian vein left renal vein IVC. 

Nerve supply 

* Sympathetic : T11, T12
* Parasympathetic: S2, 3, 4 

Lymph drainage 
♦ To para-aortic L.Ns directly through ovarian lymphatics. 

Applied anatomy (Surgical importance):
1) Fallopian tube has double blood supply, so gangrene never occurs. 
2) Provide site of fertilization & the fertilized ovum remains 4 days within it. 
3) In tubal ectopic: 
 If in the ampulla: Delayed disturbance (wide part).
 If in the isthmus: Early disturbance (narrow part).
4) In ART for infertility treatment, ZIFT and GIFT. 
5) Tubal ligation is a method of contraception. 

Fallopian tube congenital anomalies: 
– Aplasia: *complete absence of tubes. 
*associated with absence of the uterus & upper ¾ of vagina. 
– Hypoplasia (long thin tortuous tube, more liable to ectopic pregnancy & infertility). 
– Shape: accessory ostium & tubal diverticulum predispose to ectopic pregnancy. 

Functions of the fallopian tube: 
1. Pick up of ovum from the ovary. 
2. Site of sperm capacitation by tubal secretions. 
3. Site of fertilization. 
4. Transport of the zygote towards the uterine cavity by peristaltic & ciliary movements.

Anatomy of the fallopian tube.

Lecture on Anatomy of FALLOPIAN TUBES/UTERINE TUBES

Fallopian tube (Uterine tube = Oviduct) Embryology – Anatomy – Histology

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Dr.Galal Baligh

OB-GYN Specialist

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